Drinking just one glass of wine increases breast cancer risk, finds a major new report from the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR).
The Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer report reviewed 119 studies, including data on 12 million women and 260,000 cases of breast cancer. The analysis found strong evidence that drinking the equivalent of a small glass of wine or beer a day increases pre-menopausal breast cancer risk by 5 per cent and increases post-menopausal risk by 9 per cent.
The report also reveals, for the first time, that vigorous exercise, such as running or fast cycling, decreases both pre- and post-menopausal risk. For vigorous exercise, pre-menopausal women who were the most active had a 17 per cent lower risk and post-menopausal women had a 10 per cent lower risk of developing breast cancer compared to those who were the least active. Total moderate activity, such as walking and gardening, was associated with a 13 per cent lower risk when comparing the most versus least active women.
The report identified further links between breast cancer risk and dietary intake of non-starchy vegetables, dairy and foods that are high in calcium.